• Scanning probe microscopy: evolution of different types; focus on the atomic force microscope: super-resolved 3D mapping of surface morphology.
• Digital image processing and analysis of 3D AFM images: examples with Gwyddion.
• The AFM as a force sensor: tip-sample forces close to contact: intra-molecular forces, electric dipoles; inter-molecular forces, physical models: ion-dipoles, Keesom and London force. • Tip-sample forces in contact: Hamaker constant; surface energy; contact models of Hertz, JKR, DMT; water capillary force.
• Force spectroscopy: from force-distance to force-indentation; stiffness, adhesion, friction maps. Image artefacts.
• Dynamic AFM in detail: the point mass oscillator model: free and interacting with the sample; analytical theory of dynamic AFM: Amplitude and Frequency Modulation; virial and dissipation; correlations of amplitude, phase lag, frequency shift and drive change; net attractive and net repulsive regimes, phase contrast; mean and peak force in AM AFM.
• AFM simulations by VEDA: approach curves, static and dynamic; AM scanning feedback, scanning instabilities due to sample, phase contrast and height artifacts.
• More on dynamic AFM: measuring electrical (Kelvin probe) and magnetic forces; advanced AFM modes for mechanical and electrical characterization of materials.
Dr Marco Salerno, Italian Institute of Technology, has about 30 years of experience in scanning probe microscopy: He received his MSc degree in Physics in 1993 on investigation of nanoscale friction with AFM, and his PhD in 2002 on SNOM of particle plasmons. He has been responsible of different SPM Labs at PNB-PST (Elba Island), INFM-Modena, CNR-Lecce, and during the last 15 years at iit-Genova, where he runs 3 different instruments (Asylum Research, Park, JPK). He has approx. 60 papers dealing with SPM, and h-index of 27. In addition to advanced morphological description of surface features (including fractal characterization), he has worked extensively in mechanical nanoindentation AFM and in electrical modes (Kelvin probe microscopy and conductive AFM).
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