Research School of High Energy Physics
Galina Nyashina, an engineer of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Kseniya Vershinina, an engineer of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Margarita Kurgankina, an engineer of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Pavel Strizhak, a professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics.
Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials (6.065; Q1)
A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NOx and SOx several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes.
Margarita Kurangina, an engineer of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Galina Nyashina, an engineer of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Pavel Strizhak, a professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics.
Journal: Journal of Cleaner Production (5.715; Q1)
This research experimentally determines the major gas emissions from the industrial combustion of coal, coal processing waste, and coal derivatives in the form of traditional coal dust as well as slurry fuels with water and flammable additives. Several types of coal are considered: gas coal, flame coal, bituminous, non-coking and low-caking coal, as well as coal processing waste (filter cakes), coal derivatives (coke, semi-coke), and flammable liquids (industrial oil waste, fuel oil). Experimental data for charcoal and carbon dust from recycled car tires are presented as well. The concentration is evaluated for the most hazardous gas emissions: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. A number of factors defining the said concentrations are established: the quality of components, their elemental composition and concentration (40–60% coal, 30–50% water, 5–15% flammable liquid); slurry preparation method (homogenizer or cavitator); coal grind (8–250 μm); and the mass of the batch (0.5–1.5?g). In particular, changing coal concentration in a slurry from 40 to 60% increases the emission of nitrogen oxide by 35% and sulfur oxide by 67%. Varying water concentration from 30 to 50% decreases the emission of nitrogen oxide by 17% and sulfur oxide by 62%. Increasing the flammable liquid concentration from 5 to 15% slightly lowers the emission of nitrogen oxide (by 5%), while the sulfur oxide emission grows by 28%. The advantages of coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals combustion are identified over coal. Moreover, the main limitations are determined for large-scale usage of slurry fuels instead of traditional heat and power industry fuels.
Dmitri Glushkov, an associate professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Pavel Strizhak, a professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Semen Syrodoy, a senior lecturer of Butakov Research and Education Center, et al.
Journal: Energy (4.52; Q1)
Global problems of effective coal and oil processing waste recovery can be solved by making use of these wastes as the main fuel components for coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Until now, no predictive models have been developed that would simulate the sustainable ignition of CWSPs based on components with highly different properties, such as ash, moisture, and volatile content, heat of combustion, etc. This is exactly the type of model we are presenting in this paper. In order to gain a greater insight in the process under study, the experimental research has been conducted. We have created an experimental database with the main characteristics of CWSP ignition, namely the duration of stages, gas-phase and heterogeneous ignition delay times, maximum combustion temperatures, and minimum sufficient oxidizer temperatures. A mathematical model has been developed predicting the conditions and characteristics of CWSP droplet ignition. The signature feature of the model is that it accounts for all the main heat and mass transfer processes and chemical reactions in the solid fuel – liquid fuel – water system under study. This mathematical model can serve as the basis for estimating and comparing the ignition characteristics of different CWSPs.
Roman Egorov, an associate professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Dmitri Antonov, a student of the School of Energy & Power Engineering, Timur Valiullin, a PhD students of the Research School of High Energy Physics, Pavel Strizhak, a professor of the Research School of High Energy Physics.
Journal: Fuel Processing Technology (3.752; Q1)
Various fuel composites became popular for a last decade because smart mixture of different combustibles allows effective minimization of the negative features of components. In this paper we have observed the influence of water evaporation on the different stages of ignition of the waste derived coal-water slurry with addition of the waste petrochemicals. It was shown that the gas-phase ignition stage and heterogeneous ignition stage of the slurry have the increasing time-separation (from 4 to 50?ms) with a growth of the furnace temperature after 1000?K. It happens because the peak of water vaporization in the volume of fuel shifts closer to the moment of ignition with furnace temperature increase. As result, an additional fuel heating is required before the heterogeneous ignition. The volume power density of volatiles combustion around the fuel droplet grows for 30–40 times with furnace temperature changes from 870?K to 1070?K. However, combustion of the volatiles does not produce heat enough for the immediate beginning of the stable heterogeneous ignition when the water content is about 30–40%. The obtained results can be used in future for an effective optimization of the ignition of the water-filled fuels as well as for a choice of the most effective and ecological combustion regime.
Olga Lutoshkina, a lecturer at the Research Center for Management and Technologies in Higher Education, Maksim Piskunov, an assistant at the Research School of High Energy Physics, et l.
Journal: International Journal of Thermal Sciences (3.615; Q1)
Experimental research on mechanisms of vapor production by boiling and evaporation was carried out on heterogeneous droplets of water containing graphite particles of different sizes and concentrations, heated by high-temperature environment (up to about 1373?K). Different steps have been observed, such as free surface evaporation of the droplet, bubbles boiling at the solid inclusion/liquid interface, the explosive disintegration of a drop into a cluster of small droplets and efficient evaporation of the produced smaller droplets. The results are useful for developing technologies of fire extinguishing by using water sprays containing non-metallic solids. Practical implementation of the explosive breakup of heterogeneous droplets can eventually permit extinguishing fire on larger areas with an identical water load.
Stefano Sfarra, a research fellow at the Research School of High Energy Physics, Santulli C. (h-index: 23), et al.
Journal: Construction and Building Materials (3.169; Q1)
Paper: A proposal of a new material for greenhouses on the basis of numerical, optical, thermal and mechanical approaches
The use of recycled paper in HDPE (High Density PolyEthylene) matrix composites has recently been introduced as an interesting alternative to traditional recycling process for paper. HDPE is also used as double wall greenhouse glazing because panels are easy to install, UV stabilized, and affordable. These type of products must also be strong enough and durable in order to react under tensile loads provided by wind and harsh weather conditions.
The aim was to understand whether modified HDPE can (or cannot) be a valid competitor of pure HDPE for the production of semi-transparent and robust panels.
Research School for Chemistry & Applied Biomedical Sciences
Olga Guselnikova, an engineer at the School of Earth Sciences & Engineering, Pavel Postnikov, an associate professor at the Research School for Chemistry & Applied Biomedical Sciences, Svorcik V. (h-index: 37), et al.
Journal: Advanced Materials Interfaces (4.279; Q1)
The design and creation of switchable amphiphilicity on the surface of thin poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films are described. Amphiphilic properties are achieved through the 3D surface spatially selective modification using the membrane?assisted diazonium approach. Proposed technique allows simple grafting with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds in the surface valleys or tops, depending on the order of modification steps. Thermally controllable hydro? and oleophilicity are achieved by the in?plane and height distinguished grafting of PMMA films with bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl and poly(N?isopropylacrylamide) chains. Sample surface at different stages of the modification is characterized by the X?ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier?transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also the range of temperature?dependent wettability tests (with water, hexadecane, and ethyleneglycol) is performed. The temperature controlled amphiphilicity switching is proved to be fully reversible and proceeding in seconds.
Alexandra Pershina, an associate professor at the Research School for Chemistry & Applied Biomedical Sciences, et al.
Journal: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (3.834; Q1)
The use of MR-techniques is very advantageous for investigating parasitic infection. Collection of experimental MR-data gives a new impulse to examination of infected humans and encourages to implement these methods in routine diagnosis of infections, including but not limited to opisthorchiasis.
School of Core Engineering Education
Sergey Lazarev, an assistant at the School of Core Engineering Education, Chollet M. (h-index: 23), Zhu D. (h-index: 28), Feng Y. (h-index: 21), Williams G. (h-index: 46), Petukhov A.V. (h-index: 34), Vartanyants I.A. (h-index: 30).
Journal: Scientific Reports (4.259; Q1)
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide extremely bright and highly spatially coherent x-ray radiation with femtosecond pulse duration. Currently, they are widely used in biology and material science. Knowledge of the XFEL statistical properties during an experiment may be vitally important for the accurate interpretation of the results. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry performed in diffraction mode at an XFEL source. It allowed us to determine the XFEL statistical properties directly from the Bragg peaks originating from colloidal crystals. This approach is different from the traditional one when HBT interferometry is performed in the direct beam without a sample. Our analysis has demonstrated nearly full (80%) global spatial coherence of the XFEL pulses and an average pulse duration on the order of ten femtoseconds for the monochromatized beam, which is significantly shorter than expected from the electron bunch measurements.
School of Non-Destructing Testing & Security
Igor Minin, SRF at the School of Non-Destructing Testing & Security, et al.
Journal: Scientific Reports (4.259; Q1)
Specialized electromagnetic fields can be used for nanoparticle manipulation along a specific path, allowing enhanced transport and control over the particle’s motion. In this paper, we investigate the optical forces produced by a curved photonic jet, otherwise known as the “photonic hook”, created using an asymmetric cuboid. In our case, this cuboid is formed by appending a triangular prism to one side of a cube. A gold nanoparticle immersed in the cuboid’s transmitted field moves in a curved trajectory. This result could be used for moving nanoparticles around obstacles; hence we also consider the changes in the photonic hook’s forces when relatively large glass and gold obstacles are introduced at the region where the curved photonic jet is created. We show, that despite the obstacles, perturbing the field distribution, a particle can move around glass obstacles of a certain thickness. For larger glass slabs, the particle will be trapped stably near it. Moreover, we noticed that a partial obstruction of the photonic jet’s field using the gold obstacle results in a complete disruption of the particle’s trajectory.
School of Nuclear Science & Engineering
Egor Kashkarov, an assistant at the Department for Experimental Physics, Nikolay Nikitenkov, a professor at the Department for Experimental Physics, Alyona Sutygina, a PhD student at the Department for Experimental Physics, et al.
Journal: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (3.582; Q1)
This paper describes the hydrogenation behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy Ti-implanted by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Hydrogen sorption kinetics of the Ti-modified alloy was investigated under gas-phase hydrogenation at 400 °C for 1 h. The influence of implantation time on the protective properties of the modified layer was shown. The lowest hydrogen absorption as well as the highest hydrogen trapping efficiency was achieved after PIII for 30 min. The main contribution to the reduction of hydrogen permeation is the formation of an oxide layer consisting of mixed TiO2 and ZrO2 on the modified surface of the alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that PIII titanium oxide exists on the surface in the form of TiO2, which transforms to mixed Ti2O3 and TiO2 after hydrogenation. The thickness of the modified layer increases with implantation time that improves the efficiency of hydrogen trapping. All the absorbed hydrogen is gradually distributed in the modified layer and no hydrides are formed after hydrogenation in Ti-modified Zr-1Nb for 15 and 30 min.
School for Earth Science & Engineering
Maxim Rudmin, an associated professor at the Department of Geology, Roberts A.P.(h-index: 55), Horng C.S. (h-index: 19), Aleksey Mazurov, a professor at the Department of Geology, Olesya Savinova, an associated professor at the Department of Geology, Alexei Ruban, an assistant at the Department of Geology, et al.
Journal: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (3.201; Q1)
Authigenesis of ferrimagnetic iron sulfide minerals (greigite and monoclinic pyrrhotite) occurred across the Paleocene?Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) within the Bakchar oolitic ironstone in southeastern Western Siberia. Co?occurrence of these minerals is associated with diagenetic environments that support anaerobic oxidation of methane, which has been validated by methane fluid inclusion analysis in the studied sediments. In modern settings, such ferrimagnetic iron sulfide formation is linked to upward methane diffusion in the presence of minor dissolved sulfide ions. The PETM was the most extreme Cenozoic global warming event and massive methane mobilization has been proposed as a major contributor to the globally observed warming and carbon isotope excursion associated with the PETM. The studied sediments provide rare direct evidence for methane mobilization during the PETM. Magnetic iron sulfide formation associated with methanogenesis in the studied sediments can be explained by enhanced local carbon burial across the PETM. While there is no strong evidence to link local methane venting with more widespread methane mobilization and global warming, the magnetic, petrographic, and geochemical approach used here is applicable to identifying authigenic minerals that provide telltale signatures of methane mobility that can be used to assess methane formation and mobilization through the PETM and other hyperthermal climatic events.
Maxim Rudmin, an associated professor at the Department of Geology, Aleksey Mazurov, a professor at the Department of Geology, Dmitry Matemyanov, an engineer at the R&D Laboratory for Clean Water, et al.
Journal: Applied Clay Science (3.101; Q1)
This paper explores suitability of glauconitic rocks in the Upper Cretaceous Bakchar deposit in Western Siberia as alternate potash fertilizer. The K2O content of these glauconitic rocks varies from 2.5 to 4.1 wt.%, indicating their good potential as K-fertilizer for agronomic uses. According to the different compositional and textural characteristics, glauconitic rocks can be divided into three types, i.e., glauconitolite, glauconitic sandstone and glauconite-chamosite ooidal ironstone, with glauconite concentrations 58.5 wt.%, 25.7 wt.% and 24.6 wt.%, respectively. The intermediate size fraction of glauconitolite concentrates up to 90.4 wt.% of glauconite grains by using wet sieving. Magnetic separation further increases the concentration of glauconite grains for each type of rock samples, especially of glauconitic sandstone. Mixing of glauconitic products with soil increases the germination rate of oat seeds by up to 5.2%, the seedling height records an increase from 0.8% to 18.8%. Both untreated glauconitolite and its granulometric fraction result same rate of growth of oat seedlings. The results of this study suggest that the Bakchar glauconitic deposit can be used as a substitute potash fertilizer, with or without sieving and magnetic separation.